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    筆譯口譯

    學習經驗翻譯技巧翻譯賞析單詞翻譯口譯筆記筆譯考試口譯考試文化差異標書翻譯法律翻譯

    翻譯技巧:如何翻譯外位語

    yun 于2016-11-30發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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    什么是外位語?外位語如何翻譯?

    949ce41bc4484cbfa5cb20b07429953f.jpg

    實際上指相同事物的兩個詞或短句拆開來出現在兩個地方,用一個做句子的成分,把另外一個放在句外。我們就把這個居于結構之外的成分叫外位語,那個結構之內的成分叫本位語。舉個簡單的栗子”關起門來搞建設,這樣是不行的”,其中”關起門來搞建設”是外位語,”這”是本位語,對于這類句子我們主要有兩種方法:”譯出來”和”譯進去”.

    一、譯出來

    所謂”譯出來”即將外位語譯成一個獨立的成分與主句分離,分以下三種情況

    1.譯成外位語結構

    如:
    然而朋友們把多量的同情,多量的愛,多量的歡樂,多量的眼淚分了給我,這些東西都是生存所必需的。
    My friends then gave me in large quantities sympathy, love, joy and tears—things essential for existence.
    有喜有憂,有笑有淚,有花有實,有香有色,既須勞動 ,又長見識 ,這就是養花的樂趣。(老舍:《養花》)
    Joy and sorrow, laughter and tears, flowers and fruit ,fragrance and color, manual labor and increased knowledge all these make up the joy of flower cultivation.
    以上兩例,都是套用漢語中含有外位語結構的句子框架來翻譯。

    2.譯為獨立的一個句子或者是并列句

    有些朋友,連他們的名字我以前也不知道,他們卻關心我的健康,處處打聽我的“病況”,直到他們看見了我那被日光曬黑了的臉和膀子,他們才放心地微笑了,這種情形的確值得人掉淚。
     Some, whom I did not even know by name, showed concern over my health and went about inquiring after me. It was not until they saw my suntanned face and arms that they began to smile a smile of relief. All that was enough to move one to tears.
    世間有不少的人為了家庭拋棄朋友,至少也會在家庭和朋友之間劃一個界限,把家庭看得比朋友重過若干倍。這似乎是很自然的事情。
    Many people forsake their friends in favor of their own families, or at least draw a line of demarcation between families and friends, considering the former to be many times more important than the latter. That seems to be a matter of course.
    褻瀆的人固然不少,我可總不忍——這一套又是書生之見。
    Though many other people violate the taboo, I for my part cannot bear to do the same. This again is the impractical view of a bookish person.

    3.將外位語結構譯為由介詞of ,as for, as to, as regard等引導的介詞短語放在句首,通常適用于句子中出現”至于”或含有此意味的句子

    至于不挑食,其心態與上面相似。
    As to picky eating, I often find people barely over forty becoming very choosy about food.

    4. 譯為同位語或非限制性定語從句

    一個人既不能獨立轉移風氣,也該在消極方面有所自守,邦同作弊,贊助越出常軌的事兒,總可以免了吧,——這自然是書生之見,不免通達的人一笑。
    If it is beyond one's capacity to single-handedly stem the prevailing social evils, one should at least be self-disciplined so as not to make matters worse. All this is undoubtedly the pedantic view of bookish person—a view which must sound ridiculous to all sensible gentlemen.(譯為同位語)
    世人常稱大學為“最高學府”,這名稱易滋誤解,好像過此 以上即無學問可言。
     A university has often been misleadingly referred to as "the highest seat of learning", which sounds as if there were no more learning to speak of beyond it.
    (譯為定語從句)

    二、譯進去

    即將外位語作為句子的一部分來翻譯,”融入”到句子中

    1. 將外語結構轉化成為名詞從句或不定式短語,置于句末,作邏輯主語,而用it作形式主語。例如:

    不調查、不研究、提起筆來“硬寫”,這就是不負責的態度.
    It is sheer irresponsibility to pick up the pen and "force ourselves to write" without investigation or study.

    2. 將"這""這些"略去不譯,直接把外位語結構譯為句中的一個成分

    今天忽然聽說北京大學要開一個運動會,這個消息使我很高興。
    Today I was very happy to hear that Peking University was about to schedule a sports meet.
    他們根據自己的文學欣賞的才能,根據不同時代潮流,對文學作品提出自己的看法,互相爭論,互相學習,互相啟發,互相提高,這也是一種創作活動,對文學理論的建設會有很大的好處.
    In accordance with their own capacity for literary appreciation and the different historical trends, the views they put forward for mutual discussion, study, inspiration and improvement are also something creative and conducive to the development of literary theory.
    逢到和舊友談話,就不知不覺地把話題轉到舊事上去,這是我的習慣。
    When chatting away with my old friends, I am in the habit of unwittingly channeling the topic of conversation toward things of former days.
    這種譯法比較靈活,童鞋們要在平時多做積累。

    3. 指代主語的外位語,可譯為句中的表語,有些地方稱這種方法為”倒置法”

    如:
    工廠、鐵道、槍炮等,這些是物質條件。
    The material conditions are factories, railways, firearms and the like.
    皮包,水壺,剃須刀,旅行藥箱等等,這些是旅行的必需品。
    The necessities for traveling are leather satchels, flasks, razors, small medicine kits, and the like.
    實現經濟發展,這是我們今后相當長時間的中心工作.
    For a relatively long period ahead ,the focus of our work is to realize the economic development.

    綜上,我們可以看到,漢譯英時,外位語的處理方法是多種多樣的,有時可直接原封不動地套用原文的框架,有時可進行必要的轉換。但是究竟選擇何種方法,要充分考慮到英漢語不同的句法特點,結合上下文,以達到最佳的翻譯效果。

    【文章來源:滬江英語】

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