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    翻譯賞析:張培基英譯散文賞析之《容忍》

    yun 于2016-10-27發布 l 已有人瀏覽
    增大字體 減小字體
    季羨林(1911年8月6日—2009年7月11日),中國山東省聊城市臨清人,國際著名東方學大師、語言學家、文學家、國學家、佛學家、史學家、教育家和社會活動家。

    72401d616bd6a67a1bbcd1758458be56.jpg

    容忍  Patience

    季羨林  Ji Xianlin

    人處在家庭和社會中,有時候恐怕需要講點容忍。
    In home and social life one probably needs to be a little bit patient now and then.

    要點:
    此處的“容忍”譯為patience,較fortitude, perseverance, endurance相比,patience含有一定的道德品質成分


    唐朝有一個姓張的大官,家庭和睦,美名遠揚,一直傳到了皇帝耳中。皇帝贊美他治家有道,問他道在何處,他一氣寫了一百個“忍”字。這說得非常清楚:家庭中要互相容忍,才能和睦。這個故事非常有名。在舊社會,中國姓張的全以祖先的容忍為榮了。

    During the Tang Dynasty, a high official surnamed Zhang was known far and wide for his harmonious home life. When the emperor gave him praise and asked him how he had been running the family to achieve harmony, he wrote down without a break one hundred characters meaning “patience”. Evidently, the message he tried to bring home to the emperor was that family members must be accommodating to each other for the sake of harmony. That’s famous story. Consequently, people surnamed Zhang in the old days all felt greatly honored that one of their ancestors had been known for exercising patience.

    要點:
    1,“家庭和睦,美名遠揚”可合譯為“以其和睦的家庭生活而遠近聞名”,was known far and wide for his harmonious home life
    2,“問他道在何處”即“問他如何治家求和睦”譯為asked him how he had been running the family to achieve harmony
    3,“他一氣寫了一百個‘忍’字”譯為he wrote down without a break one hundred characters meaning “patience”.其中“一口氣”譯為without a break,in one breath, at one go
    4,“這說得非常清楚:家庭中要互相容忍,才能和睦。”譯為Evidently, the message he triedto bring home to the emperor was that family members must be accommodating to each other for the sake of harmony.其中to bring home to意為“使…深刻體會”如:What do I have to do to bring home to you the urgency of the situation?  你要我做什么才能使你認清情況的緊急呀?


    但是容忍也并不容易。1935年, 我乘西伯利亞鐵路的火車經蘇聯赴德國,車過中蘇邊界上的滿洲里,停車四小時,由蘇聯海關檢查行李。這是無可厚非的,入國必須檢查,這是世界公例。但是,當時的蘇聯大概認為,我們這一幫人,從一個資本主義國家到另一個資本主義國家,恐怕沒有好人,必須嚴查,以防萬一。檢查其他行李,我決無意見。但是,在哈爾濱買的一把最粗糙的鐵皮壺,卻成了被檢查的首要對象。這里敲敲,那里敲敲,薄薄的一層鐵皮決藏不下一顆炸彈的,然而他們卻敲打不止。我真有點無法容忍,想 要發火。我身旁有一位年老的老外,是與我們同車的,看到我的神態,在我耳旁悄悄地說了句:Patience is a great virtue(容忍是很大的美德)。我對他微笑,表示致謝。我立即心平氣和,天下太平。
    However, it is easier said than done to be tolerant towards others. In 1935, I traveled to Germany via the Soviet Union over the Siberian railway. At the Sino-Soviet border in Manzhouli, the train stopped for a 4-hour-inspection by the Soviet customs. That was all right because entry inspection was an international practice. But the then Soviet Union subjected me to a closer-than-usual customs inspection probably on the assumption that I, like all those traveling from one capitalist country to another, must be a dubious character. I had no objection to the check-up of my belongings except when a crudely-made tinplate kettle that I had bought at Harbin became something very fishy to them. The kettle was certainly too flimsy for holding a hidden bomb, but they barked up the wrong tree and kept clanking it repeatedly here and there. Driven beyond the limit of my patience, I was about to flare up when an elderly foreigner, who was my co-passenger, whispered to me, “Patience is a great virtue.” That calmed me down, and I turned to him with a smile by way of expressing my thanks.

    要點:
    1,“這是無可厚非的”意為“這并沒有什么不對”譯為That was all right,或That was beyond reproach
    2,“一把最粗糙的鐵皮壺”譯為a crudely-made tinplate kettle,其中“鐵皮”即“馬口鐵”譯為tinplate,這種詞匯的細節是需要長時間的積累才能把握的~
    3,“…卻成了被檢查的首要對象”譯為became something very fishy to them,其中fishy意為“可疑的,值得懷疑的”意同dubious,但比較不正式
    4,“薄薄的一層鐵皮決藏不下一顆炸彈的,然而他們卻敲打不止”譯為The kettle was certainly too flimsy for holding a hidden bomb, but they barked up the wrong tree andkept clanking it repeatedly here and there.其中“they barked up the wrong tree”意作“捕風捉影”是譯文中的增譯部分
    5,“敲打不止”譯為kept clanking it repeatedly here and there,譯者在此使用擬聲詞clanking(把…敲得叮當響)使這一動作更加形象傳神
    6,“我對他微笑,表示致謝”譯為I turned to him with a smile by way of expressing my thanks.其中by way of是成語,意同for the purpose of
    綜述:
    除了上述幾點外,注意本段開頭一句,譯者在譯多個動詞“乘”“經”“過”時,以介詞代動詞的手法~


    看來容忍確是一件好事,甚至是一種美德。但是,我認為,也必須有一個界限。我們到了德國以后,就碰到這個問題。舊時歐洲流行決斗之風,誰污辱了誰,特別是誰 的女情人,被污辱者一定要提出決斗,或用手槍,或用劍。普希金就是在決斗中被槍打死的。我們到了的時候,此風已息,但仍發生。我們幾個中國留學生相約:如 果外國人污辱了我們自身,我們要揣度形勢,主要要容忍,以東方的恕道克制自己。但是,如果他們污辱我們的國家,則無論要同他們玩兒命,決不容忍。這就是我 們容忍的界限。幸虧這樣的事情沒有發生,否則我就活不到今天在這里舞筆弄墨了。
    Obviously, patience is really a good thing or rather a great virtue. But I think there should be a demarcation line to be observed. Fighting a duel was a common practice in old Germany. One who suffered an insult to himself or especially his girlfriend would challenge the offender to a fight in which they used pistols or swords. The great Russian poet A. S. Pushkin was one of those shot dead in a duel. At the time when I arrived in Germany together with some other Chinese students, the practice of dueling was still lingering on there though less prevalent. We pledged that in case of ourselves being insulted we shouldweigh the pros and cons and give precedence to patience in line with the Oriental doctrine of magnanimity, but that in case of a humiliating insult directed against our dear country, we should wage a life-and-death struggle against the offender without showing any patience. That is what I mean by drawing a demarcation line. Fortunately, nothing of the kind happened; otherwise, I might not have survived to write this article today.

    要點:
    1,“看來容忍確是一件好事,甚至是一種美德”中的“甚至是一種美德”可理解為“確切來說,是一種美德”譯為Obviously, patience is really a good thing or rather a great virtue.
    2,“提出決斗”即“challenge a fight”
    3,“普希金就是在決斗中被槍打死的”譯為The great Russian poetA. S. Pushkin was one of those shot dead in a duel.其中The great Russian poet屬于解釋性詞語
    4,“揣度形勢”即“權衡利弊”“見機行事”,譯為weigh the pros and cons
    5,“玩命”即“進行生死較量”譯為wage a life-and-death struggle against the offender
    6,“否則我就活不到今天在這里舞筆弄墨了”即“否則我就不會在這里寫文章了”otherwise, I might not have survived to write this article today.
    綜述:
    本段行文流暢靈活,譯文也是在用詞和句式上靈活多變,十分貼近原作風格~


    現在我們中國人的容忍水平,看了真讓人氣短。在公共汽車上,擠擠碰碰是常見的現象。如果碰了或者踩了別人,連忙說一聲:“對不起!”就能夠化干戈為玉帛。然 而有不少人連“對不起”都不會說了,于是就相吵相罵,甚至于扭打,甚至打得頭破血流。我們這個偉大的民族怎么竟成了這個樣子!我在自己心中暗暗祝愿:容忍兮,歸來!
     It is disheartening nowadays to see so little patience shown by our compatriots. On a crowded bus, for instance, when you happen to bump into a co-passenger or step on his feet, an immediate word of apology from you willserve to prevent a dispute. But many even grudge saying, “Sorry!” thereupon a quarrel or a fist-fight will follow until both parties are beaten black and blue. Oh, what has brought our great nation to such a pass? May PATIENCE come back to stay!

    要點:
    1,“讓人氣短”即“令人沮喪”,譯為disheartening
    2,“化干戈為玉帛”譯為serve to prevent a dispute
    3,black and blue原意為“青一塊紫一塊”,如今作“頭破血流”
    4,pass有個不常見的意思“階段;步驟”此處用的就是這個意思,
    In the first pass all the addresses are loaded into the database.
    第一步,所有地址均輸入數據庫。
    綜述:
    注意本段一些中國習語的翻譯~


    【文章來源:滬江英語】

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