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    吃什么、什么時候吃,這兩點真的非常重要

    kira86 于2018-08-17發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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    最佳的日常飲食是什么?專家認為重要的不僅僅是吃什么,還有什么時候吃。

    食物.jpg
    Nutrition scientists have long debated the best diet for optimal health. But now some experts believe that it's not just what we eat that's critical for good health, but when we eat it.

    長期以來,營養學家們一直在爭論對于理想的健康狀況而言,最佳的日常飲食是什么。但是如今一些專家認為,重要的不僅僅是吃什么,還有什么時候吃。

    A growing body of research suggests that our bodies function optimally when we align our eating patterns with our circadian rhythms. Studies show that chronically disrupting this rhythm — by eating late meals or nibbling on midnight snacks, for example — could be a recipe for weight gain and metabolic trouble.

    越來越多的研究表明,當飲食模式與生物鐘相匹配時,我們的身體能夠以最佳狀態運轉。長期打亂這種規律,例如吃得很晚或是在深夜吃一點零食,都可能導致體重增加并產生新陳代謝問題。

    That is the premise of a new book, "The Circadian Code," by Satchin Panda, a professor at the Salk Institute and an expert on circadian rhythms research. Dr. Panda argues that people improve their metabolic health when they eat their meals in a daily 8- to 10-hour window, taking their first bite of food in the morning and their last bite early in the evening.

    以這樣的結論為前提,索爾克研究所教授及人體晝夜節律研究方面專家的薩欽.潘達(Satchin Panda)在新書《節律密碼》(The Circadian Code)中提出,把每天的可進食時段控制在8-10個小時之內,即在早晨吃第一頓、傍晚吃最后一頓,有助于提升人們的新陳代謝健康。

    This approach, known as early time-restricted feeding, stems from the idea that human metabolism follows a daily rhythm, with our hormones, enzymes and digestive systems primed for food intake in the morning and afternoon. Many people, however, snack and graze from roughly the time they wake up until shortly before they go to bed. Dr. Panda has found in his research that the average person eats over a 15-hour or longer period each day, starting with something like milk and coffee shortly after rising and ending with a glass of wine, a late night meal or a handful of chips, nuts or some other snack shortly before bed.

    這一方法也被稱為“提早限時進食法”,它源于人類的新陳代謝遵循日常節律,即我們體內的激素水平、酶以及消化系統都更傾向于在早晨和下午進食這一理念。然而很多人大約從早晨醒來一直到睡前都在吃東西。潘達博士在他的研究中發現,平均人們每天在長達15個小時或更長的時段內進食,通常是早晨起來喝一杯牛奶或咖啡,睡前再喝一杯酒、吃頓夜宵,或是一大把薯片、堅果等其他零食。

    That pattern of eating, he says, conflicts with our biological rhythms.

    潘達教授說,這種飲食模式與我們的生物節律相違背。

    Scientists have long known that the human body has a master clock in the brain, located in the hypothalamus, that governs our sleep-wake cycles in response to bright light exposure. A couple of decades ago, researchers discovered that there is not just one clock in the body but a collection of them. Every organ has an internal clock that governs its daily cycle of activity.

    科學家們早就發現人類大腦中存在一個主生物鐘,它位于下丘腦,能夠對亮光進行反饋,從而控制睡眠和清醒的周期。幾十年前,研究者們發現人體內存在大量的生物鐘,而不是僅有一個。每個器官都有一個內在的生物鐘,掌管著它的日常活動周期。

    During the day, the pancreas increases its production of the hormone insulin, which controls blood sugar levels, and then slows it down at night. The gut has a clock that regulates the daily ebb and flow of enzymes, the absorption of nutrients and the removal of waste. The communities of trillions of bacteria that comprise the microbiomes in our guts operate on a daily rhythm as well. These daily rhythms are so ingrained that they are programmed in our DNA: Studies show that in every organ, thousands of genes switch on and switch off at roughly the same time every day.

    白天,胰腺會增加胰島素的分泌,用以控制血糖水平,而到了晚上這一過程就會減慢。腸道也有一個生物鐘,用以管理每天酶的分泌量的起伏、營養的吸收以及廢物的排出。我們腸道內數以億計的細菌構成的菌群也以日節律運轉。這些日節律是如此根深蒂固,以至于它們被寫入了我們的基因:研究表明,在每個器官當中,成千上萬的基因都在每天大約同一時刻工作和休息。

    We've inhabited this planet for thousands of years, and while many things have changed, there has always been one constant: Every single day the sun rises and at night it falls, Dr. Panda said. "We're designed to have 24-hour rhythms in our physiology and metabolism. These rhythms exist because, just like our brains need to go to sleep each night to repair, reset and rejuvenate, every organ needs to have down time to repair and reset as well."

    “我們在這個星球上居住了數千年,盡管很多事情發生了變化,但是仍有一件事是永恒的,那就是每天太陽都會照常升起和落下,”潘達教授說。“我們在生理和代謝上被設定好擁有以24小時為周期的節律。這些節律之所以存在,是因為就像我們的大腦每晚需要修復、重啟和恢復活力一樣,每個器官也需要有休息時間來修復和重啟。

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