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    基因突变使得早期人类在跑步方面更占优势

    kira86 于2018-09-21发布 l 已有人浏览
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    人并不如许多动物跑得快,但人类在跑步方面却有去多其它动物所没有的优势。
      小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

    跑步.jpg
    Genetic Tweak Gave Early Humans a Leg Up

    基因突变使得早期人类在跑步方便更占优势

    Homo sapiens are nowhere near the fastest runners in the animal kingdom. But what we lack in speed, we make up for in endurance. And we're specially equipped to go the distance. We've got bigger butt muscles than other primates. We lost most of our fur, too, and sprouted lots of sweat glands, to help us cool off.

    智人远不及动物界跑得最快的动物跑得快。但我们速度不足,耐力来补。我们有特殊的“武器”可以助我们跑长跑,我们的臀?#32771;?#32905;比其它灵长类动物的臀肌大。我们大部分的毛发也没有了,还长出了许多汗腺帮我们调节体温。

    Scientists believe our endurance running abilities began to appear two [million] to three million years ago, around the time the genus homo came about. And a new study suggests that a mutation in one key gene had something to do with it.

    科学家们相信,我们的耐力跑能力在200万到300万年前就开始出现了,大约是在人属出现的时候就有了,一项新的研究表明,这与一项关键基因的突变有关。

    The mutation, in what's called the CMAH gene, altered the types of sugar molecules that decorate the surfaces of every cell in our bodies. Which in turn may have made our muscles less prone to fatigue.

    这种?#24576;?#20026;CMAH基因的突变,改变了装饰我们体内每个细胞表面的糖分子类型。而反过来,可能使得我们的肌肉不易疲劳。

    Researchers have now found that mice bred with that same mutation can run longer without tiring, compared to regular mice. The mice with the gene alteration also logged more miles running on their wheels, apparently for fun. And they had more capillaries in their back leg muscles - which would increase the delivery of nutrients and oxygen during endurance exercise.

    研究人员如今还发现,与正常小鼠相比,这种有相同基因突变的老鼠可以跑得更?#20204;?#19981;累。基因突变的老鼠在它们的轮子上也跑了更多英里,显然只是为了好玩。而且它们的后?#24605;?#32905;中有更多毛细血管,这将在耐力运动期间,增加营养?#33073;?#27668;的输送。

    The complete stats are in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

    完整的数据统计刊登在《英国皇家学会学报B》杂志上。

    It's unclear if this small genetic tweak endows humans with the same benefits as the mice. But if it does, it could help explain how early humans got a leg up on their competitors. Or, really, two legs.

    目前还不清楚这个小小的基因改进,是否赋予人类与老鼠身体?#35805;?#30340;好处。但如果它能的话,这将有助于解释早期的人类是如何在竞争中占得优势的。或者,实际上是占了压倒性的优势。

    (小e英语Jewel翻译,欢迎捉虫!)

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