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    基因突變使得早期人類在跑步方面更占優勢

    kira86 于2018-09-21發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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    人并不如許多動物跑得快,但人類在跑步方面卻有去多其它動物所沒有的優勢。
      小E英語歡迎您,請點擊播放按鈕開始播放……

    跑步.jpg
    Genetic Tweak Gave Early Humans a Leg Up

    基因突變使得早期人類在跑步方便更占優勢

    Homo sapiens are nowhere near the fastest runners in the animal kingdom. But what we lack in speed, we make up for in endurance. And we're specially equipped to go the distance. We've got bigger butt muscles than other primates. We lost most of our fur, too, and sprouted lots of sweat glands, to help us cool off.

    智人遠不及動物界跑得最快的動物跑得快。但我們速度不足,耐力來補。我們有特殊的“武器”可以助我們跑長跑,我們的臀部肌肉比其它靈長類動物的臀肌大。我們大部分的毛發也沒有了,還長出了許多汗腺幫我們調節體溫。

    Scientists believe our endurance running abilities began to appear two [million] to three million years ago, around the time the genus homo came about. And a new study suggests that a mutation in one key gene had something to do with it.

    科學家們相信,我們的耐力跑能力在200萬到300萬年前就開始出現了,大約是在人屬出現的時候就有了,一項新的研究表明,這與一項關鍵基因的突變有關。

    The mutation, in what's called the CMAH gene, altered the types of sugar molecules that decorate the surfaces of every cell in our bodies. Which in turn may have made our muscles less prone to fatigue.

    這種被稱為CMAH基因的突變,改變了裝飾我們體內每個細胞表面的糖分子類型。而反過來,可能使得我們的肌肉不易疲勞。

    Researchers have now found that mice bred with that same mutation can run longer without tiring, compared to regular mice. The mice with the gene alteration also logged more miles running on their wheels, apparently for fun. And they had more capillaries in their back leg muscles - which would increase the delivery of nutrients and oxygen during endurance exercise.

    研究人員如今還發現,與正常小鼠相比,這種有相同基因突變的老鼠可以跑得更久且不累。基因突變的老鼠在它們的輪子上也跑了更多英里,顯然只是為了好玩。而且它們的后退肌肉中有更多毛細血管,這將在耐力運動期間,增加營養和氧氣的輸送。

    The complete stats are in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

    完整的數據統計刊登在《英國皇家學會學報B》雜志上。

    It's unclear if this small genetic tweak endows humans with the same benefits as the mice. But if it does, it could help explain how early humans got a leg up on their competitors. Or, really, two legs.

    目前還不清楚這個小小的基因改進,是否賦予人類與老鼠身體一般的好處。但如果它能的話,這將有助于解釋早期的人類是如何在競爭中占得優勢的。或者,實際上是占了壓倒性的優勢。

    (小e英語Jewel翻譯,歡迎捉蟲!)

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