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    你的大腦或比別人的大腦衰老得快 如何腦保持年輕?

    kira86 于2019-03-07發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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    研究發現,有些人的大腦比其他人的大腦衰老得更快。專家分享保持大腦年輕的方法。
      小E英語歡迎您,請點擊播放按鈕開始播放……

    大腦老化.jpg
    Study Finds Some Brains Age Quicker Than Others

    研究發現 有些人的大腦比其他人的大腦衰老得更快

    From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

    你正在收聽的是美國之音慢速英語節目《健康與生活方式》報道。

    The brain, like any other body part, gets old. However, not all brains age the same way. For example, women's brains may age more slowly than men's. That is the finding of a U.S. study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri.

    大腦跟身體的其它部分一樣,會老化。不過,并非所有大腦的衰老方式都一樣。比如,女性的大腦衰老速度可能比男性的大腦衰老速度更慢。這是美國一項來自密蘇里州圣路易斯華盛頓大學醫學院的研究發現。

    Researchers there wanted to find out how the brain uses sugar. To do that, they studied just over 200 brains of men and women aged 20 to 80. They used PET scans to look at the flow of oxygen and sugar in the brains.

    該學院的研究人員想弄清大腦是如何利用糖的。為此,他們研究了年齡在20到80歲之間的200多名男性和女性的大腦。他們利用PET掃描來觀察大腦中氧和糖的流動。

    The researchers found that the brains of women looked nearly four years younger than the brains of men who were born in the same year. Their findings suggest that the brains of men and women may use sugar differently as they age.

    研究人員發現,女性的大腦看起來比同齡男性的大腦年輕將近4歲。他們的發現表明,隨著年齡的增長,男性和女性的大腦對糖的利用可能會有所不同。

    But the researchers do not know why. Some scientists suggest that hormones could play a part.

    但研究人員也不知道原因是為什么。一些科學家認為荷爾蒙也起了一定的作用。

    The lead author of the study, Manu Goyal, is an assistant professor of neurology and of neuroscience. In a statement published on the website Science Daily, Goyal explained why the work is important.

    該研究的主要作者馬努·戈亞爾是神經學和神經科學系的助理教授。在《科學日報》網站上發表的一份聲明中,戈亞爾解釋了這項研究的重要性。

    How the brain uses fuel, he wrote, "might help us understand some of the differences we see between men and women as they age."

    他寫道,“大腦如何利用營養(糖分)可能有助于我們理解男性和女性之間隨著年齡增長會出現的一些差異。”

    What happens as our brains age?

    當我們的大腦老化時,會出現什么情況?

    On its website, the National Institute on Aging describes an aging brain.

    美國國家老齡化研究所(全美抗衰老協會)在其網站上這樣描述一個衰老的大腦。

    Parts of the brain get smaller, "especially those important to learning and other complex mental activities." Communication between neurons may decrease. Blood flow may lessen and inflammation may increase.

    大腦的某些部分變小了,“尤其是那些對于學習和其它復雜心理活動很重要的部分。”神經元之間的交流可能會減少。血流可能會減少,炎癥可能會增加。

    All these changes slow our cognitive abilities. We have trouble remembering things, finishing complex tasks or paying attention.

    所有這些變化都減緩了我們的認知能力。我們在記憶、完成復雜任務或集中注意力方面都有困難。

    Given what scientists already know about aging, the recent study about sex differences in the brain has raised some questions. For one, if women's brains age more slowly than men's, why do more women get Alzheimer's disease?

    考慮到科學家們對衰老已有的了解,最近關于大腦性別差異的研究又引出了一些問題。首先,如果女性的大腦衰老速度比男性的慢,那為什么患有老年癡呆癥的女性反而更多?

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive brain disorder that cannot be stopped. It slowly destroys memory, thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest of tasks.

    阿爾茨海默氏癥是一種漸進(進行性發展的)腦部疾病,這種腦失調病情不可逆,它慢慢地破壞記憶和思維能力,最終破環完成最簡單任務的能力。

    Alzheimer's does not have a cure. However, doctors say that between 50 to 60 percent of Alzheimer's cases can be prevented by simple lifestyle changes.

    阿爾茨海默氏癥沒有治愈方法。不過,醫生表示,50%到60%的阿爾茨海默氏癥病例可以通過對生活方式做一些簡單的改變來預防。

    Ways to keep your brain young

    保持大腦年輕的方法

    Whether you are a man or a woman, here are some things you can do to keep your brain young and healthy.

    無論你是男性還是女性,這里有一些方法可以讓你的大腦保持年輕和健康。

    * Sleep is the easiest and best thing you can do keep your brain young. Experts say to try to get around seven hours of sleep each night.

    睡眠是保持大腦年輕最簡單也是最好的方法。專家建議每晚盡量保證7個小時的睡眠。

    * Get aerobic exercise for 30 to 40 minutes three to four times a week. Exercise helps you grow brain cells and improves blood flow in the brain.

    每周進行三到四次有氧運動,每次30到40分鐘。鍛煉可以幫助你培養腦細胞,以及改善大腦中的血液流動情況。

    * Eat a healthy diet. Doctors say any diet that is good for the heart is also good for the brain. One example is the Mediterranean diet with lots of vegetables (especially leafy greens), fruits (especially blueberries), nuts, whole grains, red wine (in moderation) and fish.

    健康飲食。醫生表示,任何對心臟有好處的飲食對大腦也有好處。其中一個例子是地中海飲食法,吃大量蔬菜(尤其是綠葉蔬菜)、水果(尤其是藍莓)、堅果、全谷物、紅酒(適量)和魚類。

    * Do activities that make you excited and happy.

    做一些讓你興奮和快樂的活動。

    * Spend time with family and friends.

    花時間和家人朋友在一起。

    The researchers of the brain study published their findings in February in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    參與這項大腦研究的研究人員于今年2月在《美國國家科學院院刊》上發表了他們的研究結果。

    Goyal and his team plan to continue researching this topic. Currently, they are following a group of adults to see if people with "younger-looking brains" are less likely to develop problems with their thinking over time.

    戈亞爾和他的團隊計劃繼續研究這一課題。目前,他們正在觀察一組成年人,看看隨著時間的推移,“大腦看起來更年輕”的人是否不太可能出現思維問題。

    And that's the Health & Lifestyle report. I'm Anna Matteo.

    以上就是本期《健康與生活方式》報道的全部內容。我是安娜·馬特奧。

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